Late Antique and Early Medieval Inscriptions

Britain / ASE / Ireland

Last updated - 10 May 2013.

Items in Red added since 1 January 2013. 

Much of Archaeologia Cambrensis from the 19th and early 20th century is now available on-line here. I am yet to systematically include all the articles published there in this website. 

Databases and Websites

The Celtic Inscribed Stones Project – UCL’s database of all non-runic inscriptions in Celtic speaking countries, AD 400-1200.

Corpus of Anglo-Saxon Stone Sculpture. Link.

Corpus of Anglo-Saxon Stone Sculpture, Vol. 1, County Durham and Northumberland (Oxford, 1977). Content available here.

Ogam-InschriftenJost Gippert’s database of ogham inscriptions.

Ogham in 3d. Link.

Pictish Stones. Link. 

Project Eliseg - on Eliseg's Pillar. Link.

Silchester Roman Town: The Ogham stone. Link.

Articles and Books

Alcock, L., and Alcock, E.A., “The context of the Dupplin cross: a reconsideration”, Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 126 (1996), pp. 455-457. Link.

Bannerman, W., “The inscription on the Drosten Stone at St Vigeans”, Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 44 (1909-1910), pp. 343-352. Link.  

Bannerman, W., “On the ogham inscriptions of the Lunnasting and Golspie Stones”, Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 42 (1907-1908), pp. 342-352. Link.  

Barnes, M.P., and Page, R.I., “A Runic Fragment from Orkney”, Nytt om runer 17 (2002), pp. 18-19. Link. 

Baldwin, B.G., “The Hartlepool tombstones, and the relations between Celtic and Teutonic art in the Early Christian period”, Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 53 (1918-1919), pp. 195-228. Link. 

Brown, G. et al., "A Middle-Saxon runic inscription from the National Portrait Gallery and an inscribed fossilised echnoid from Exeter Street, London", Medieval Archaeology 45 (2001), pp. 203-210. Link.

Brown, M.P., "The Manuscript Context for the Inscription", Staffordshire Hoard SymposiumLink. 

Calder, W.M., and Jackson, K.H., “An inscription from Altyre”, Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 90 (1956-57), pp. 246-250. Link. 

Charles-Edwards, G., "A reconsideration of the origins of early Insular monumental lettrering of the mixed alphabet type: the case of the 'Lapis Echodi' inscription on Iona", Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 134 (2004), pp. 173-181. Link.

Chiu, H., “The political function of ‘early christian’ inscriptions in Wales”, Journal of the Australian Early Medieval Association 2 (2006), pp. 23-41. Link.

Clancy, T.O., “The Drosten Stone: a new reading”, Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 123 (1993), pp. 345-353. Link.

Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum. Vol. VII. Inscriptiones Britanniae Latinae, E. Huebner (ed.) (Berlin, 1873). Link. 

Cowie, T.G., “Excavations at the Catstane, Midlothian 1977”,  Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 109 (1977-78), pp. 166-201. Link.

Craw, J.H., “Two Long Cairns (One Horned) and an Ogham inscription, near Poltalloch, Argyll”, Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 66 (1931-1932), pp. 445-450. Link. 

Curle, C.L., “The Chronology of the Early Christian Monuments of Scotland”, Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 74 (1939-1940), pp. 60-116. Link.

Diack, F.C., “The Old-Celtic Inscribed and Sculptured Stone at Auquhollie, Kincardineshire, and Ogam in Scotland”, Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 59 (1924-1925), pp. 257-269. Link. 

Edwards, N., “Early-Medieval Inscribed Stones and Stone Sculpture in Wales: Context and Function”, Medieval Archaeology 45 (2001), pp. 15-39. Link.

Ferguson, S. (ed.), Ogham inscriptions in Ireland, Wales and Scotland (Edinburgh, 1887). Link.

Forsyth, K., Some thoughts on Pictish symbols as a formal writing system”, in I. Henderson and D. Henry (eds.), The Worm, the Germ and the Thorn: Pictish and Related Studies Presented to Isabel Henderson (Brechin, 1995), pp. 85-98. Link.

Forsyth, K., “The ogham-inscribed spindle whorl from Buckquoy: evidence for the Irish language in pre-Viking Orkney”, Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 125 (1995), pp. 677-696. Link.

Forsyth, K., Language in Pictland: the case against non-Indo-European Pictish (Utrecht, 1997). Link. 

Forsyth, K., “Literacy in Pictland”, in H. Pryce (ed.), Literacy in Medieval Celtic Societies (Cambridge, 1998), pp. 39-61. Link.The Latin inscription at Penbryn, Cardiganshire, reads 'CORBALENGI IACIT ORDOUS' (Image: DI2008_0439 / NPRN: 304135)

Forsyth, K., “An ogham-inscribed plaque from Bornais, South Uist”, in B. Ballin Smith, S. Taylor and G. Williams (eds.), West over Sea. Studies in Scandinavian Sea-Borne Expansion and Settlement Before 1300 (Leiden, 2007), pp. 461-477. Partial Link.

Foster, S., “Early Medieval Inscription at Holcombe, Somerset”, Medieval Archaeology 32 (1988), pp. 208-211. Link.

Fulford, M., Clarke, A., and Handley, M., “An early date for Ogham: the Silchester Ogham Stone Rehabilitated”, Medieval Archaeology 44 (2000), pp. 1-23. Link.

Furlonger, T.A., “RIB 508: Christian not Pagan”, Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 97 (1993), pp. 225-226. Link. 

Ganz, D., "The Text of the Inscription", Staffordshire Hoard SymposiumLink 

Guerra, L., Inscriptions and Communication in Anglo-Saxon England, Masters Thesis (Utrecht, 2008). Link. 

Handley, M.A., Notes on Late Antique and Early Medieval Inscriptions II: Using ogham to write Latin and British in 5th and 6th-century western Britain?”, at http://handley-inscriptions.webs.com/notesoninscriptions.htm, first published 10 May 2013. 

Higgitt, J., “The Pictish Latin inscription at Tarbat in Ross-shire”, Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 112 (1982), pp. 300-321. Link.

Higgitt, J., "The stone-cutter and the scriptorium. Early medieval inscriptions in Britain and Ireland", in W. Koch (ed.), Epigraphik 1988 (Vienna, 1990), pp. 149-162. Link.

Higgitt, J.,  “Design and meaning in Early Medieval inscriptions in Britain and Ireland”, in M. Carver (ed.), The Cross Goes North: Processes of Conversion in Northern Europe, AD 300-1300 (Woodbridge, 2003), pp. 327-338. Partial link.

Higgitt, J., “The inscriptions”, in R. Cramp (ed.), Corpus of Anglo-Saxon Stone Sculpture. Volume VII. South-West England (Oxford, 2006), pp. 63-68. Partial link.

Higgitt, J., “Apendix H. British Inscribed stones in Devon and Somerset”, in R. Cramp (ed.), Corpus of Anglo-Saxon Stone Sculpture. Volume VII. South-West England (Oxford, 2006), pp. 245-247. Link.

Hines, J., “An inscribed Lead plaque from Holm St Benets, Norfolk”, Nytt om runer 19 (2004), pp. 14-15. Link. 

Holder, N., and Wardle, P., "A disputed early medieval inscribed stone from Barry, Vale of Glamorgan", Medieval Archaeology 43 (1998), pp. 216-222. Link.

Howlett, D., “Literate Culture of Dark Age Britain”, British Archaeology 33 (April, 1998). Link.

Hübner, E. (ed.), Inscriptiones Christianae Britanniae (Berlin, 1871). Link. 

Insley, J., “Anglo-Saxons in Rome: The Evidence of the Names”, in U. Ludwig and T. Schlip (eds.), Nomen et Fraternitas (Berlin, 2008), pp. 107-114. Partial Link.

Kelly, H., “Ballaqueeny Cronk, the Clagh-ard or Crosh Ballaqueeny, and Cronk How Mooar”, Yn Lior Manninagh - The Manx Book 2 (1892-1895), pp. 47ff. Link.

Kermode, P.M.C. (ed.), Catalogue of the Manks Crosses with the Runic Inscriptions and various readings and renderings compared, 2nd edition (London, 1892). Link.

Kermode, P.M.C., “Sculptured and inscribed stones recently found at Kirk Maughold”, Yn Lior Manninagh - The Manx Book 3 (1895-1901), pp. 629-633 Link. 

Kermode, P.M.C. (ed.), Manx Crosses (London, 1907). Link. 

Kermode, P.M.C., “Note on the Ogam and Latin Inscriptions from the Isle of Man, and a recently found Bilingual in Celtic and Latin”, Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 45 (1910-1911), pp. 437-450. Link.

Kermode, P.M.C., “Cross-slabs recently discovered in the Isle of Man”, Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 46 (1911-1912), pp. 53-76. Link.

Kermode, P.M.C., “Further discoveries of cross-slabs in the Isle of Man”, Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 50 (1915-1916), pp. 50-62. Link. 

Kermode, P.M.C., “Inscribed cross-slab from Keeill at Ballavarkish, Bride”, Proceedings of the Isle of Man Natural History and Antiquarian Society 9 (1911-1912), pp. 593-595. Link.

Kneale, W.M., “The discovery of ogams in the Isle of Mann”, Manx Notebook 3 (1887), pp. 163-166. Link.

Laing, L., "How late were Pictish symbols employed?", Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, 130 (2000), pp. 637-650. Link.

Laing, L., "The date and context of the Glamis, Angus, carved Pictish stones?", Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, 131 (2001), pp. 223-239. Link.

Langdon, A.G., and Romilly Allen, J. (eds.), Old Cornish Crosses (Truro, 1896). Link. 

Longden, G., "Iconoclasm, Belief and Memory in Early Medieval Wales", in H. Williams (ed.), Archaeologies of rememberance: death and memory in past societies (New York, 2003), pp. 171-191. Partial Link.

Looijenga, J.H., Runes around the North Sea and on the Continent AD 150-700; texts and contexts, PhD (1997). Link. 

Macalister, R.A.S. (ed.), The Memorial slabs of Clonmacnois, King's County: with an appendix on the materials for a history of the monastery (Dublin, 1909). Link.

Macalister, R.A.S., “The ancient inscriptions of Kirkmadrine and Whithorn”, Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 70 (1935-1936), pp. 315-325. Link. 

MacDonald, G., “On two inscribed stones of the early Christian period from the Border District”, Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 70 (1935-1936), pp. 33-39. Link.

Macrae, D., “The Srostan Stone (St Vigeans)”, Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 43 (1908-1909), pp. 330-334. Link.  

Maldonado Ramirez, A.D., "Christianity and burial in late Iron Age Scotland, AD 400-650", Unpublished PhD (Glasgow, 2011). Link. 

Marwick, H., “A Rune-inscribed stone from Birsay, Orkney”, Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 56 (1921-1922), pp. 67-71. Link. 

Maxwell, H.E., “The crosses of Kirkmadrine: Discovery of the missing third stone”, Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 51 (1916-1917), pp. 199-207. Link. 

McKee, H., and McKee, J., “Counter Arguments and Numerical Patterns in Early Celtic Inscriptions: A Re-examination of Christian Celts: Messages and Images”, Medieval Archaeology 46 (2002), pp. 29-40. Link.

Moar, P., "Two Shetland Finds. 1. Runic stone, Papil, Burra Isle", Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 86 (1951-52), p. 206. Link.

Moore, F., “Munster Ogham Stones: Siting, Context and Function”, in M.A. Monk and J. Sheehan (eds.), Early Medieval Munster: archaeology, history and society (Cork, 1998), pp. 23-32. Partial link.

Notton, D., "An Anglo-Saxon inscribed fossil echinoid from Exeter Street, London? An alternative explanation", Medieval; Archaeology 46 (2002), pp. 107-110. Link. 

Okasha, E., "An inscribed stone fragment from Nassington, Peterborough", Medieval Archaeology 43 (1999), pp. 203-205. Link. 

Okasha, E., and Forsyth, K. (eds.), Early Christian Inscriptions of Munster: A corpus of the Inscribed Stones (Cork, 2001). Partial Link.

Okasha, E., “Spaces between words: Word separation in Anglo-Saxon inscriptions”, M. Carver (ed.), The Cross Goes North: Processes of Conversion in Northern Europe, AD 300-1300 (Woodbridge, 2003), pp. 327-338. Partial link.

Okasha, E., “A third supplement to Hand-List of Anglo-Saxon Non-Runic Inscriptions”, Anglo-Saxon England 33 (2004), pp. 225-282. Partial link.

Okasha, E., “Script-Mixing in Anglo-Saxon inscriptions”, in A.R. Rumble (ed.), Writing and Texts in Anglo-Saxon England (Cambridge, 2006), pp. 62-71. Partial Link.

Okasha, E., “Anglo-Saxon inscriptions found outside the British Isles”, in B. Ballin Smith, S. Taylor and G. Williams (eds.), West over Sea. Studies in Scandinavian Sea-Borne Expansion and Settlement Before 1300 (Leiden, 2007), pp. 69-81. Partial Link.

Okasha, E., “Appendix: Report on Inscription”, in K. Leahy, The Staffordshire Hoard. Discovery and Initial Assessment (2010). [Listed on the web-site as 'Summary of the hoard and interpretation']. Link.

Okasha, E., "The Staffordshire Hoard Inscription", Staffordshire Hoard SymposiumLink 

Page, R.I., Runes and Runic Inscriptions (Woodbridge, 1995). Link.

Petts, D., “Memories in Stone. Changing strategies and contexts of rememberance in early medieval Wales”, in H. Williams (ed.), Archaeologies of Rememberance. Death and Memory in Past Societies (New York, 2003), pp. 193-214. Partial Link.

Redknap, M., “Excavation at Iona Abbey, 1976”, in Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 108 (1976-77), pp. 228-253. Link.

Rhys, J., “Why I visited the Manx Mona”, Manx Notebook 3 (1887), pp. 61-66. Link.

Ritchie, A., “Excavation of Pictish and Viking-age farmsteads at Buckquoy, Orkney”, Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 108 (1976-77), pp. 174-227. Link.

Romilly Allen, J., “The Early Christian monuments of Iona: with some suggestions for their better preservation”, Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 35 (1900-1901), pp. 79-93. Link.  

Rutherford, A., and Ritchie, G., “The Catstane”, Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 105 (1972-74), pp. 183-188. Link.

Savage, E.B., “Ogam inscriptions at Ballaqueeney, Rushen”, Manx Notebook 2 (1886), pp. 145-148. Link.

Schwab, U., “Weitere angelsächische Runen in Rom”, Nytt om runer 17 (2002), pp. 17-18. Link.

Schwab, U., “More Anglo-Saxon Runic Graffiti in Roman Catacombs”, Old English Newslatter 37.1 (Fall 2003), pp. 36-39. Link.

Sims-Williams, P., The Celtic Inscriptions of Britain: phonology and chronology, c. 400-1200 (Oxford, 2003). Partial Link. 

Steer, K.A., “Two unrecorded early Christian stones”, Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 101 (1968-69), pp. 127-129. Link.

Stevenson, R.B.K., “The Inchyra stone and some other unpublished early Christian monuments”, Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 92 (1958-59), pp. 33-55. Link.

Thomas, C., "The early Christian inscriptions of Southern Scotland", Glasgow Archaeological Journal 17 (1991-92), pp. 1-10. Link. 

Tomlin, R.S.O.,  “Vinisius to Nigra: Evidence from Oxford of Christianity in Roman Britain”, Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 100 (1994), pp. 93-108. Link.

Tomlin, R.S.O., “Sede in tuo loco: a fourth-century Uterine Phylactery in Latin from Roman Britain”, Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 115 (1997), pp. 291-294. Link.

Trench-Jellicoe, R., "The Skeith Stone, Upper Kilrenny, Fife, in its context", Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 128 (1998), pp. 495-513. Link.

Watts, L., et al., “Kirkdale – the Inscriptions”, Medieval Archaeology 41 (1997) pp. 51-99. Link.

West, A., “A throng of Fifty warriors routed by a single scholar”. On the newly-found Speke Farm ogham stone from the Isle of Man. Link.

West, A., “The Penwith Ogham Stone”. On the newly-found ogham stone from Cornwall. Link.

Westwood, J.O. (ed.), Lapidarium Walliae. The Early Inscribed and Sculptured Stones of Wales (Oxford, 1879). Link.

Will, R.S., Forsyth, K., Clancy, T.O., and Charles-Edwards, G., "An eighth-century inscribed cross slab from Dull, Perthshire", Scottish Archaeological Journal 25.1 (2003), pp. 57-71. Link.

Williams, H., "Remembering elites: early medieval stone crosses as commemorative technologies", in Arkaeologi i Slesvig / Archäologie in Schleswig (Neumunster, 2011), pp. 13-31. Link. 

Ziegler, S., Die Sprache der altirischen Ogam-Inschriften (Gottingen, 1994). Partial link.