Late Antique and Early Medieval Inscriptions

Notes on Late Antique and Early Medieval inscriptions: I and II

This page will house what I hope and intend to be a fairly sporadic but regular stream of informally-published notes on Late Antique and Early Medieval inscriptions. These will broadly consist of short research notes on interesting inscriptions (e.g. a nearly finished piece based on the use of the eastern usurper Basiliscus’ consular date in northern Italy in late 476), and lists of addenda to publications such as PLRE, PCBE, and my own Dying on Foreign Shores.

 

Notes on Late Antique and Early Medieval Inscriptions I:

76 addenda to PLRE from ICI

This first note is a return to a familiar stomping ground for me. To date I have published just over 420 addenda to PLRE in two sets. The first focussed on Gaul and Iberia (and Britain). The second focussed on the Latin-speaking Balkans. In an effort to reach the magic number of 1000 addenda I have decided to start the process of collecting examples from Italy and North Africa. In the first instance this will be limited to those editions of inscriptions most readily to hand (i.e. those I have on my shelves, or those inscriptions I have in a database. Future addenda will, amongst others, come from Naples, Aquileia, Concordia, Sardinia, Sicily, Carthage, Altava, Haidra, Sousse, Mactar, and Salona.

This first set of addenda comes from the 15 current volumes of Inscriptiones Christianae Italiae (Bari, 1985-2013). I have not normalised in any way the names of the individuals, but listed them here as they appear in stone.

This article should be cited as: M.A. Handley, “Notes on Late Antique and Early Medieval Inscriptions I: 76 addenda to PLRE from ICI”, at http://handley-inscriptions.webs.com/notesoninscriptions.htm, accessed [date]. As an on-line publication I naturally reserve the right to alter and change this text without notice, but will endeavour to mark any changes made, and give a ‘last updated’ date. The most recent changes are marked in red. These reflect the publication of two more volumes in the series, and the belated inclusion of Volume II. I have retained the original numbering, and inserted the new entries as (a). Last updated 10 April 2013.

 

1.       Anonyma 1: the wife of Coelio Benedicto: medico. She and their son Anonymous 4  commemorated her husband at Vettona in the early 5th century (ICI VI, no. 101).

2.      Anonyma 2: the wife of Castorius consularis Sicilie vicarius Africe (PLRE I, s.n. Castorius), who was commemorated at Cupra Marritima in 385 (ICI X, no. 8).

      2a. Anonyma 3: h(onesta) f(emina). She lived an uncertain number of years and was commemorated at Civitavecchia (ICI II, no. 21).

3.      Anonymous 1: curator r(ei) p(ublicae) istius civitatis at Bolsena. The husband of Mettia Navigia for 20 years. His wife was commemorated in September 376 (ICI I, no. 2).

4.      Anonymous 2: son of Aelio Gentili laudabili viro medico (PLRE II, s.n. Aelius Gentilis), and brother of Anonymous 3. His father was commemorated at Bolsena in the 5th or 6th century (ICI I, no. 6).

5.      Anonymous 3: son of Aelio Gentili laudabili viro medico (PLRE II, s.n. Aelius Gentilis), and brother of Anonymous 2. His father was commemorated at Bolsena (ICI I, no. 6).

6.      Anonymous 4: the son of Coelio Benedicto: medico. He and his mother Anonyma 1  commemorated his father at Vettona in the early 5th century (ICI VI, no. 101).

7.      Anonymous 5: c(larissimus) v(ir). He was commemorated at Tortona in 510. His epitaph was re-used to commemorate his niece R(…) Claudia  in 519 (ICI VII, no. 19).

     8.     Anonymous 6: defen[sor]. He lived an uncertain number of years. He may have been a defensor ecclesiae, rather than a secular official. He was commemorated at Canosa in the late 6th century (ICI XIII, no. 20).

9.      Anonymous 7: [in]lust(ris). He was commemorated at Albenga. The editor concedes that the letters could be read Iust[…], and another possibility is lust(ra) (ICI IX, no. 67).

10.  Anonymous 8: c(larissimus) v(ir), who lived 32 years. Recorded on a fragmentary epitaph from Albenga (ICI IX, no. 69).

11.   Anonymous 9: [virum] honest[um]. Commemorated at Chienti in 519 (ICI X, no. 29).

      11a. Anonymous 10: ex pal[atino]. Commemorated in Milan (ICI XIV, no. 22).

12.  Aelius A[…]: [me]dicus. Commemorated at Bolsena (ICI I, no. 7).

13.  Umbricia Abundantia: the daughter of Nervinia Euresia h(onesta) f(emina), and Crispinus. Her mother was commemorated at Terni in 386 (ICI VI, no. 18).

14.  Acilius: responsible for the commemoration of Maria claro veniens de stirpe parentum. He may have been her husband. He raised Maria’s epitaph at Albenga in the early to mid 6th century (ICI IX, no. 58).

15.   Antracius: IIII vir q(uin)quennalis), who lived 57 years. He was commemorated at Carsulae in the fourth century (ICI VI, no. 38).

16.  Apra: She was the husband of Maecio Paterno, and the mother of [M]arcellus and Patern[a]. Her husband was commemorated at Bolsena (ICI I, no. 18).

17.   Coelio Benedicto: medico. Commemorated by his son Anonymous 4, and wife Anonyma 1 at Vettona in the early 5th century (ICI VI, no. 101).

18.  Benenatus: v(ir) h(onestus), who lived an uncertain number of years and was commemorated at Canosa in the late 6th century (ICI XIII, no. 11).

19.  Brizinus: mai[o]r procurator, who lived more or less 47 years and was commemorated at Canosa in 393 (ICI XIII, no. 1).

20. Ulpio Candido 1: viro laudabili, patri, ex p(rae)p(osito) et clerico, who lived 77 years. He was married to Aur(elia) Valeria 2. She was responsible for his commemoration at Tortona along with Fl(avius) Candidus 2 and Munatia Spica, who may have been their children (ICI VII, no. 59).

21.  Fl(avius) Candidus 2: arguably the son of Ulpio Candido 1 viro laudabili, patri, ex p(rae)p(osito) et clerico, who lived 77 years, and Aur(elia) Valeria 2. Along with his probable mother, and probable sister Munatia Spica, he was responsible for commemorating Ulpio Candido 1 at Tortona (ICI VII, no. 59).

21a. Censorius: v(ir) s(pectabilis), who lived 64 years and 7 days. He was commemorated at Trento in the mid-6th century (ICI XV, no. 3).

22. R(…) Claudia: she lived 2 years and 8 months, and was the niece of Anonymous 5 c(larissimus) v(ir). She was commemorated at Tortona in 519 by re-using the epitaph that had commemorated her uncle in 510 (ICI VII, no. 19).

23. Crispinus: the husband of Nervinia Euresia h(onesta) f(emina), and the father of Umbricia Abundantia. His wife was commemorated at Terni in 386 (ICI VI, no. 18).

24. Fl(avius) Dasa[…]cus: v(ir) s(pectabilis). Commemorated at Luogosano in the 5th or 6th century (ICI VIII, no. 68).

25.  Cl(audius) Dulcitius: pr(i)m(icerius?), who lived more or less 30 years and was commemorated at Luogosano in the 5th or 6th century (ICI VIII, no. 66).

26. Nervinia Euresia: h(onesta) f(emina), lived 29 years. She was married to Crispinus and was the mother of Umbricia Abundantia. She was commemorated at Terni in 386 (ICI VI, no. 18).

27.  Aurelia Eusebia: she lived 45 years, and had been married to Cerellio Proculino v(iro) p(erfectissimo) (PLRE I, Proculinus 2), for 24 years who raised her epitaph at Tortona in the 5th century (ICI VII, no. 34).

28. Eusevius: primicerius, who lived more or less 40 years and was commemorated at Canosa in 549 (ICI XIII, no. 8).

 

29. Fl. Eventio: cent(enario), lived 35 years, having served in the military for 13 years. He was commemorated by his father Leucosius episc(opus) at Taurianum. Mid 4th century (ICI V, no. 8).

30. F[…]na h(onesta) f(emina), who lived more or less 80 years, and was commemorated at Eclano in the 5th or 6th century (ICI VIII,  no. 61).

31.  [Fe]lic[i]tas: honesta birco, who lived more or less 6 years, and was commemorated at Benevento in 553. This may be one of those examples where virgo is used of a young girl who had nothing to do with monasticism (ICI VIII, no. 12).

32. Filicis: responsible for commemorating Vitalis conductores. Domiti viri inlust[ris] (PLRE II, s.n. Domitius 4) commemorated Istefania using the same epitaph. It is unclear whether any relationship should be imagined between these two sets of men. Vitalis was commemorated at Spoleto in the 6th century (ICI VI, no. 64).

33. Fo[…]ti: recorded on the epitaph of Severus: v(ir) s(pectabilis), who lived an uncertain number of years and was commemorated at Benevento in 570. The inscription is fragmentary and also records Valeria 1 (ICI VIII, no. 14).

34. Frilitus: v(ir) h(onestus), lived more or less 50 years and was commemorated at Terni in 490 (ICI VI, no. 22).

35.  Geniat[us]: v(ir) l(audabilis), lived 26 years. He was commemorated at Terni in 511 (ICI VI, no. 25).

36. Heliodorus: the father of M(arco) Valerio Herodio: optioni vexxill(ationis) supra(scriptae) ex exceptore p<r>aef(ectorum) prate(orio) em(inentissimorum) v(irorum) (PLRE I, Herodius), and M(arco) Valerio Florentio actuario comitum imp(eratoris) ex exceptore praef(ectorum) prate(orio) (PLRE I, Florentius 13). Along with his wife Tatiane he commemorated his sons at Suasa in the 4th-5th century (ICI VI, no. 124).

37.  Iobia[ni]: commemorated in the cemetery of S. Lorenzo Maggiore in Milan. Also recorded on the inscription was [Mat]rona h(onesta) f(emina) (ICI XII, no. 31).

38. Istefania: commemorated by Domiti: viri inlust[ris] (PLRE II, s.n. Domitius 4). Commemorated using the same epitaph were Vitalis conductores, and Filicis. It is unclear whether any relationship should be imagined between these two sets of men. Istefania was commemorated at Spoleto in the 6th century (ICI VI, no. 64).

39. Laurentia: l(audabilis) f(emina), who lived 25 years, and was commemorated near Chiusi in either 444 or 493 (ICI XI, no. 48).

40. Pomponia Legitima: principalis, who lived 50 years. She was married to Pomponius pat(ronus), and was commemorated at Frigento (ICI VIII, no. 73).

41.  Leucosius: episc(opus). The father of Fl. Eventio cent(enario), and who was responsible for his son’s commemoration at Taurianum. Mid-4th century (ICI V, no. 8).

42. [Heliod]or[o] Macedoni: he lived 70 years and was commemorated by Theoctis  fr(atris) fil(ius) v(iro) e(gregio) in the cemetery of S. Eustorgio in Milan (ICI XII, no. 4).

43. Mamercius Marcellinus: v(ir) <l>(audabilis) curator, lived more or less 30 years. He was commemorated at Benevento in 522 (ICI VIII, no. 6).

44. [M]arcellus: He was the son of Maecio Paterno and Apra, and the brother of Patern[a]. His father was commemorated at Bolsena (ICI I, no. 18).

45.  Maria: claro veniens de stirpe parentum. Her epitaph was raised by Acilius and she was also married suggesting that Acilius may have been her husband. She was commemorated at Albenga in the early to mid-6th century (ICI IX, no. 58).

46. [Mat]rona: h(onesta) f(emina). She is recorded on the epitaph of Iobia[ni] in the cemetery of S. Lorenzo Maggiore in Milan (ICI XII, no. 31).

47.  Maxima: h(onesta p(uella), lived more or less 70 years. Commemorated in the Catacomba detta di Teodora in Rignano Flaminio just north of Rome. 4th-5th century (ICI IV, no. 47).

      47a. Melleus: magister [lu]di, who lived 30 years. He was commemorated at Civitavecchia (ICI II, no. 14).

48. Mettia Navigia: lived 34 years, 4 months and 8 days, married to an Anonymous 1 curator r(ei) p(ublicae) istius civitatis for 20 years. Commemorated at Bolsena in September 376 (ICI I, no. 2).

49. Patern[a]: He was the son of Maecio Paterno and Apra, and the brother of [M]arcellus. Her father was commemorated at Bolsena (ICI I, no. 18).

50. Maecio Paterno: [is]tius ordinis sive c[iv]ita[ti]s et rec[t]ori omni[um co]mmenatium … curator et pa[trono hu]uisce civitatis iudicio omnium conprob[ato r]estauratori thermarum Tusciani, lived 57 years, and was married to Apra for 25 years, and had a son [M]arcellus and daughter Patern[a]. Commemorated at Bolsena (ICI I, no. 18).

51.   Paulini: viri [cla]rissimi, who lived 65 years, and was commemorated near Chiusi in the 5th or 6th century. The most recent editor preferred to see […P]aulini viri [cla]rissimi as an incomplete consular dating clause. Coming as it does towards the beginning of the text with an incomplete dating clause commencing 4 lines later, this seems unlikely and I have preferred to see Paulinus as the commemorand (ICI XI, no. 49).

52.  Pomponius: pat(ronus), who was married to Pomponia Legitima principalis, who lived 50 years. He is recorded on his wife’s epitaph at Frigento (ICI VIII, no. 73).

53.  Procula: sp(ectabilis) f(emina). Recorded as making a gift to God and the saints at Spoleto in the 5th century (ICI VI, no. 78).

      53a. Restutus: l(audabilis) p(uer), lived more or less 10 years. He was commemorated at Civitavecchia in 545 (ICI II, no. 2).

54.  Secundinus: [v(ir)] s(pectabilis), who lived an uncertain number of years and was commemorated in 534 in the cemetery of S. Celso in Milan (ICI XII, no. 75).

55.  Severus: v(ir) s(pectabilis), who lived an uncertain number of years and was commemorated at Benevento in 570. The inscription is fragmentary and also records Fo[…]ti and Valeria 1 of uncertain relation to Severus (ICI VIII, no. 14).

56.  Silbani: v(iri) l(audabilis). He is recorded on a small piece of bronze found near Chiusi and now in the British Museum (ICI XI, no. 61).

57.  Munatia Spica: recorded on the epitaph of Ulpio Candido viro laudabili, patri, ex p(rae)p(osito) et clerico, who lived 77 years. She is recorded as having commemorated him at Tortona along with Fl(avius) Candidus 2 and Aur(elia) Valeria 2, who were probably her brother and mother respectively (ICI VII, no. 59).

58. Stefani: v(iri) i[nl]ustris. Commemorated at Spoleto in 548, 563 or 578 (ICI VI, no. 74).

59.  Tatiane: the mother of M(arco) Valerio Herodio: optioni vexxill(ationis) supra(scriptae) ex exceptore p<r>aef(ectorum) prate(orio) em(inentissimorum) v(irorum) (PLRE I, Herodius), and M(arco) Valerio Florentio actuario comitum imp(eratoris) ex exceptore praef(ectorum) prate(orio) (PLRE I, Florentius 13). Along with her husband Heliodorus she commemorated her sons at Suasa in the 4th-5th century (ICI VI, no. 124).

60. Theoctis: v(iro) e(gregio). As fr(atris) fil(ius) he was responsible for commemorating [Heliod]or[o] Macedoni  in the cemetery of S. Eustorgio in Milan (ICI XII, no. 4).

61.  Valeria 1: recorded on the epitaph of Severus: v(ir) s(pectabilis), who lived an uncertain number of years and was commemorated at Benevento in 570. The inscription is fragmentary and also records Fo[…]ti (ICI VIII, no. 14).

62. Aur(elia) Valeria 2:  the wife of Ulpio Candido: viro laudabili, patri, ex p(rae)p(osito) et clerico, who lived 77 years. She is recorded as having commemorated her husband at Tortona along with Fl(avius) Candidus 2 and Munatia Spica, who were probably their children (ICI VII, no. 59).

63. Cassio Valeriano: principali civ[it]atis, who lived more or less 70 years and was commemorated at Albenga in the 4th century (ICI IX, no. 50).

64. Veronilia: s[(pectabilis) f(emina)], who lived 80 years and was commemorated at Eclano in 517 (ICI VIII,  no. 52).

65.  Vigilia 1: l(audabilis) f(emina), lived 24 years, and married to Vigilio v(iro) l(audabilis). She was buried in January 469. Her epitaph is of uncertain provenance near Capena (ICI IV, no. 104).

66. Vigilia 2: h(onesta) p(uella), who lived more or less 18 years. She was commemorated at Tortona in 491 (ICI VII, no. 15).

67.  Vigilio: v(iro) l(audabilis), married to Vigilia 1 l(audabilis) f(emina), who was commemorated near Capena in January 469 (ICI IV, no. 104).

68. Vitalis: conductores, who was commemorated by Filicis. Domiti viri inlust[ris] (PLRE II, s.n. Domitius 4) commemorated Istefania using the same epitaph. It is unclear whether any relationship should be imagined between these two sets of people. Vitalis was commemorated at Spoleto in the 6th century (ICI VI, no. 64).

69. […]a: h(onesta) f(emina). Commemorated at or near Tortona (ICI VII, no. 60).

70. […]ptu[s]: the editor reads the inscription as h(onestus) v(ir) […]ptu[s] p(res)b(yte)r. A possibly more likely reconstruction would be something like Hu[…]p(er)tu[s] p(res)b(yte)r, in which case his secular status is unknown. He was commemorated at S. Vittore (ICI X, no. 24).

71.   […]ro: v(iro) c(larissimo). Commemorated at Bolsena (ICI I, no. 4).

 

 

Notes on Late Antique and early medieval inscriptions II. Using ogham to write Latin and British in 5th and 6th century western Britain?

First published 10 May 2013. 

This article should be cited as: M.A. Handley, “Notes on Late Antique and Early Medieval Inscriptions II: Using ogham to write Latin and British in 5th and 6th-century western Britain?”, at http://handley-inscriptions.webs.com/notesoninscriptions.htm, accessed [date].

 

 

 Ogham was a script. It was invented (probably in the third or fourth centuries AD) to write the Primitive Irish language. It consisted, in its original form, of 20 letters carved in relation to either the angled arris of a pillar stone, or a carved stem line.

Although invented to write Primitive Irish it did not remain so restricted. This is most clear in Pictland in the north of Scotland where the ogham script was later adopted to write Pictish, a form of British (see Forsyth 1996 and Forsyth 1997). Further, early medieval Irish scribes would sometimes use ogham to write marginalia in manuscripts, and while most of these are in Old Irish, some of these marginal notes were written in Latin (see McManus 1997, at 132-133).

At the same time some inscriptions from western Britain and Ireland in this period used the Roman script system to write Irish. This can be seen at: Fardel in Cornwall with the inscription FANONI MAQUI RINI (Macalister 1945, no. 489 = Okasha 1993, no. 12 - photo copyright Trustees of the British Museum); at Wroxeter with the inscription CUNORIX MACUS MAQUI COLINE (Wright and Jackson 1968); at Inchagoil in Ireland with the inscription LIE LUGUAEDON MACCI MENUEH (Macalister 1945, no. 1); and at Colbinstown also in Ireland with the inscription IVVE[N/R]E DRVVIDES (Macalister 1945, no. 19, with McManus 1997, 61) – yes it really does day “Druids”.Stone, rectangular slab: inscribed in Roman letters on one face FANONI MAQVTRINI; on the other face SAGRANVI; ogham along two angles and top.

There was, therefore, no necessary equation of Roman script with Latin, or of the ogham script with Irish.

Nearly 400 ogham inscriptions survive from Ireland in the period from the fourth to the eighth centuries, and around 50 in western Britain from Cornwall in the south to the Isle of Man in the north. The vast majority of these inscriptions (on both sides of the Irish Sea) saw ogham used to write Primitive Irish.

There are a number of examples, however, where at the very least arguments can be made that ogham was used to write Latin and British.

From Lewannick in Cornwall comes a stone bearing two inscriptions. In Roman capitals it reads INGENVI MEMORIA. In ogham it reads IGENAVI MEMOR (Macalister 1945, no. 466 = Okasha 1993, no. 23). With the exception of the stone’s discoverer who opined that the ogham was “merely a repetition of the Latin” (Langdon 1892, 251), all commentators have taken the view that the ogham inscription is in Irish and MEMOR represents a loan word from Latin into Irish (too many to list but including Jackson, McManus, Charles-Edwards, Thomas, and Sims-Williams - all better linguists than I). These commentators might be right. They might be wrong. It would not be unfair to suggest that if the text IGENAVI MEMOR was written in Roman script very few, if any, scholars would suggest that the text was anything other than Latin. One can easily imagine the text universally expanded as Igenavi memor(ia). While the use of memoria is fairly rare in Britain at this time (there are only two other examples), it was certainly used for the Roman script inscription, and just across the Channel in Normandy the towns of Vieux and Caen have produced four examples of memoria between them (see Vipard 2002).

Certainty is denied us, but barring unnecessary assumptions that the ogham script means the text must be in Irish, it is at the very least arguable that at Lewannick the ogham script was used to write Latin.

There is a second ogham inscription from Lewannick. In this instance the Roman capitals read [HI]C IACIT ULCAGNI and the ogham reads ULCAGNI (Macalister 1945, no. 467 = Okasha 1993, no. 24). Linguistically there is nothing to stop the ogham script inscription from being in Latin. Some twenty kilometres to the north-west of Lewannick, an ogham inscription at Worthyvale reads LATINI (Macalister 1945, no. 470 = Okasha 1993, no. 78). Twenty five kilometres due west of Lewannick another ogham inscription reads IUSTI (Macalister 1945, no. 484 = Okasha 1993, no. 52). These are the only ogham inscriptions in this part of Cornwall. Is it too far-fetched to conclude that in this area of Britain all the known ogham inscriptions are in Latin?

The second main stone for discussion comes from Clochaenog in Denbighshire in north Wales (Macalister 1945, no. 399 = Nash-Williams 1950, no. 176 = Edwards 2013, no. D1, and McManus 1997, at 65). In Roman capitals the inscription reads SIMILINI TOVISACI and in ogham it reads S[I][B/M][I]L[I]NI [TO]VISACI.

As with the stone from Lewannick it has traditionally and universally been stated that the ogham inscription from Clochaenog is in Irish. Taking the Roman script text first it is acknowledged that TOVISACI is an early form of Modern Welsh twysogion, “prince”. The ogham version of this word – spelt identically – is argued to be an early form of Modern Irish taoiseach, “leader” (McManus 1997).

Ockham’s razor would suggest that two textually identical inscriptions are in the same language. I would agree. The question is which language? British, Irish and Latin all had a genitive in -I. Moreover, at this period sound and grammatical changes in British Latin were moving in relative tandem to similar changes in British itself. In both languages the case system was losing ground, presumably partly driven by, and partly as a consequence of, the drop in the final syllable in pronunciation. Linguistically there is nothing to stop SIMILINI being in British. In conjunction with TOVISACI, I would argue that the balance of probabilities may favour British as the language of the whole composition, rather then Latin or Irish.

Thus there is an argument for stating that the two inscriptions at Clochaenog – one in roman script, the other in ogham – were both written in British and not Latin. Certainly Old Welsh is later found on another inscription from north Wales at Towyn (Nash-Williams 1950, no. 287 - Edwards 2013, no. MR25).

The key point of this short note is neatly encapsulated by its very first sentence. Ogham is a script. Once invented it could then be used to write any langauge. While most ogham inscriptions are demonstrably written in Primitive Irish (as demonstrated by the use of Primitive Irish familial terms such as MAQI), there is good reason to conclude that in parts of Wales and Cornwall (as it was in Scotland) ogham was used to write other languages.

Bibliography:

Edwards 2013 = N. Edwards, A Corpus of Early Medieval Inscribed Stones and Stone Sculptures in Wales.

        Volume 3. North Wales (Cardiff, 2013).

Forsyth 1996 = K. Forsyth, The Ogham Inscriptions of Scotland: An Edited Corpus. Unpublished PhD

        (Harvard, 1996).

Forsyth 1997 = K. Forsyth, Language in Pictland. The case against non-Indo-European Pictish (Utrecht,

        1997).

Langdon 1892 = A.G. Langdon, "An ogham stone at Lewannick", Archaeologia Cambrensis (1892), pp. 251-

        252.

Macalister 1945 = R.A.S. Macalister, Corpus Inscriptionum Insularum Celticarum, Vol. 1 (Dublin, 1945).

McManus 1997 = D. McManus, A Guide to Ogam (Maynooth, 1997).

Nash-Williams 1950 = V.E. Nash-Williams, The Early Christian Monuments of Wales (Cardiff, 1950).

Okasha 1993 = E. Okasha, Corpus of Early Christian Inscribed Stones of South-west Britain (Leicester,

       1993).

Vipard 2002 = P. Vipard, "Les inscriptions lapidaires d'époque mérovingienne de la partie orientale du

       diocèse de Bayeux", Annales de Normandie 52.4 (2002), pp. 311-331.

Wright and Jackson 1968 = R.P. Wright and K.H. Jackson, "A Late Inscription from Wroxeter", The

        Antiquaries Journal 48.2 (1968), pp. 296-300.

 

 

  

Last updated 10 May 2013.